|Asylbekova Zhamilya Malik-Aidarovna*|
Doktor of historical sciences, professor of University of International Business. Almaty, Kazakhstan.
*corresponding author, E-mail: email@example.com
Sultanova Diana Khairollaevna
Master student at University of International Business Almaty, Kazakhstan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Kiyasbek Anel Estemeskyzy
Master student at University of International Business Almaty, Kazakhstan. E-mail: email@example.com
|Abstract. The article is devoted to study the history of the formation of national workers in Kazakhstan, which began in the pre-October period. During the social stratification of the Kazakh traditional society, a certain part of the impoverished peasants, in search of livelihoods found jobs in crafts, industrial enterprises and in the construction of railways. Many of them were employed in temporary, seasonal jobs. Among wage laborers, Kazakhs prevailed in the fishing and salt industries, as well as in mining enterprises. In the manufacturing industry, the number of Kazakh workers was insignificant. Workers from the indigenous ethnic group were engaged mainly in unskilled and low-skilled labor, in auxiliary work, for which they received a meager salary. Difficult conditions of work and life, open manifestations of colonialism on the part of the owners forced the Kazakh workers to engage in a struggle for their rights against the lawlessness of the authorities.|
Key words: Kazakhstan, colonial outskirts, Russian Empire, sharua, crafts.
|How to cite:|
Asylbekova Zh.M.-A., Sultanova D.K., Kiyasbek A.E. Employment of kazakhs in industry, transport and crafts in the pre-october period // Otan tarihy. 2020. №4(92). Р. 70-79.